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Facts About Baboons

Rajib Singha
Read this piece on baboon facts describing the different species of these African and Asian Old World monkeys and their close relatives...
In this story on facts about baboons, we will come across knowing about the largest monkeys in the world, which are endemic to the African, Asian continent and the Arabian peninsula. As mentioned, these primates belong to the family of Old World monkeys (monkeys of Africa or Arabia or Asia.
There are five species of baboon which include the Olive Baboon (P. anubis), the Chacma Baboon (P. ursinus), the Guinea Baboon (P. papio), the Yellow Baboon (P. cynocephalus) and the Hamadryas Baboon (P. hamadryas). One of the important facts about baboons is associated with a couple of primates which show a close resemblance to them.
They are the Mandrill (Mandrill sphinx) and the Gelada (Theropithecus gelada). These two, as mentioned, are closely related to the baboon species and are not actually true baboons.

Olive Baboon

  • The most widely spread of all baboon species is the olive baboon, also known by the name 'Anubis baboon'. It is also one of the largest of its species and is characterized by rings of yellow-brown and black hair, which make its coat a multi-colored one.
  • Savannahs, steppes, deserts and forests mainly constitute the habitat of these creatures.
  • An average male olive baboon weighs 24 kg and is 70 cm tall, while a female measures 15 kg and 60 cm.
  • The tail of this baboon looks like as if it is broken. Its upright posture over the rump for the first quarter and sharp drop thereafter, gives it a broken appearance.
  • The olive baboon has earned its name for being the most widespread species of its kind due to its opportunistic behavior towards feeding. This omnivore has the capability of foraging food in almost all kinds of environment which include on, above and even beneath the ground.
On the vegetarian side, it fancies feeding on a large variety of plants, leaves, grass, roots, bark, flowers, fruit, lichens, tubers, seeds, mushrooms, corms, and rhizomes. Regions which are dry and arid may provide this primate with insects, spiders, and scorpions for its diet.

Chacma Baboon

  • Another one among the largest and the heaviest of the baboon species is the chacma baboon, also known as the Cape baboon. It has a dark yellowish-gray to dark brown and almost black fur, with large prominent canines. What distinguishes this primate from others is its long, downward sloping face.
Its habitat consists of woodland, grassland, acacia scrub and semi-desert regions. These may include areas near a freshwater source, small hills, seaside cliffs and high altitude mountains.
  • A male and female chacma baboon is known to reach a length of 1.5 m and 1.1 m, and weigh up to 15 kg and 33 kg respectively.
  • Like other baboons, this species is an omnivore and the baboon diet consists of insects, seeds, grass and small vertebrate animals. This creature is also known to exhibit scavenging qualities.

Guinea Baboon

  • The guinea baboon, as the name suggests, is the smallest of the baboon species and has reddish brown hair, a hairless, dark-violet or black face.
  • The baboon populates areas of dry forests, gallery forests and adjoining bush savannas or steppes.
  • The average length of this animal comes up to be 27 inches and a weight of 39 pounds.
  • Like its cousin, the olive baboon, this one is known for having a varied diet, which may consist of buds, roots, grass, greens, seeds, tubers, leaves, nuts, cereals, insects, and small mammals.
  • One interesting fact about this species is related to the improvement of habitats. This is because it is known to dig for water and spread seeds in its waste, which in turn encourages plant growth.
  • A variety of vocalizations and physical interactions make up for the mode of communication of the guinea baboon. These are not only used for communicating with other of its kinds but also for predators.
  • The guinea baboon has been enlisted as a "near threatened" species by the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature), due to its small range and habitat destruction.

Hamadryas Baboon

  • The Hamadryas baboon, also known as the Sacred baboon, has its habitat in rocky desert areas and the sub-desert regions that have grass.
  • A male hamadryas baboon often, is of the size twice as that of a female. The male is characterized by its silver-white appearance and a prominent cap.
  • About feeding, its diet consists of grass, roots, seeds, reptiles, insects, small mammals and crops.
  • 30 inch in length and 45 lbs in weight are the average statistics of a male baboon.
  • Natural nemesis include leopard and lion and it has been declared as "least concern" species by the IUCN.


  • The mandrill is only closely related to baboons. It is known to be the largest of all monkeys.
  • What is most catchy about this primate is the colorful face and brightly hued rump of the male. A female has a duller color. In fact, this monkey is known to be most colorful than any other mammals.
  • The male may averagely weigh 25 - 35 kg and grow up to 81 - 90 cm. A female average 11 - 14 kg in weight and 56 - 66 cm in length.
  • These colors tend to become brighter when the creature becomes excited.
  • Fruits, roots and animals such as insects, reptiles, and amphibians are all included in the menu of the mandrill.
And with this I have reached the conclusion of this article on baboon facts. Whew! If I write any further, I would begin to feel like a baboon myself. Just kidding! It is always fun and a great source of learning experience to write about such magnificent creatures of Nature. Cheers!