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Fish Farming Techniques

Kundan Pandey
Fish farming is emerging as one of fast-growing segments of the economy. Read on to know more.
Fish farming is the main form of aquaculture, and it is now done on a large scale to meet the increasing demands of fish. As the name suggests, it is the commercial raising of fish for the purpose of food.
One of the forms of fish farming, called hatchery, pertains to the releasing of fish species into the tanks or enclosures in order to supplement the fish species or increase the numbers of fish. Hatchery is undertaken so that recreational fishing can be given a boost.
The unprecedented increase in commercial fishing has resulted in overfishing, and this has compelled the growth of this technique to meet the demands of fish protein. Salmon, carp, tilapia, catfish, and cod are some of the fish that are raised extensively in commercial fishing.

Types of Fish Farming

Caging Systems

Nets or cages are popular methods of fishing in off shore coastal areas, freshwater lakes, ponds, and oceans. Fish are raised in the cages, fed artificially, and harvested when the number of fish meet the required demands of market.
Some of the advantages of cage farming systems is that this farming technique can be practiced in various types of water sources, like lakes, ponds, seas, and oceans. This offers flexibility to the farmers. Also, many types of fish can be raised together, and the water can be used for various other purposes, like water sports.
In this farming method, superior quality cages are constructed and lowered in the water sources to raise fish. Some of its disadvantages include spread of diseases, poaching, and concerns of poor quality water.


One of the small scale techniques is raising fish in the pond. It is especially designed for the purpose of raising fish. Small ponds can be constructed in farms and houses that can provide its owner the ability to have control over the farming system. Ponds are useful for water harvesting in the dry areas and can also be utilized for raising fish.
Waste water can be contained and treated properly to raise fish. Release of untreated waste water into the environment is possible if the ponds are not maintained properly and can cause pollution. For small farms, ponds are effective to raise fish for self consumption.


If you visit any fish farming area, you may come across narrow streams flowing between two wall type structures. These streams are nothing but raceways and their purpose is to help the farmers divert water from water systems likes streams or wells so that it flows through the water channels containing fish.
There are various restrictions imposed on this type of farming by the government, and the farmers are strictly advised to treat the water before they divert it back to the natural waterways. Also, the fish can escape raceways and interfere with the wild fish habitat of the waterways.

Recirculating System

The recirculating system uses recycled water for raising fish. The waste water is treated and recycled many times. Many fish species are grown in the recirculating systems. However, the operative cost of the electricity is a disadvantage of this method.

Fish Farming Tips

  • Maintain the water quality in the ponds and fish tanks.
  • The pond banks must be of adequate height so that no grazing animals can enter it easily and harm the fish.
  • Check out for potential predators like snakes.
  • Fish diseases spread fast, so check the health conditions of the fish regularly.
  • Quarantine the diseased fish, and remove it from the fish tank.
  • Cages must be constructed as per the water body where the fish have to be put.
  • Floating cages are good for deep water sources. They can be kept floating by installing water bamboos in the depths of the water source.
  • Fixed cages are better for low depth water bodies.
The US aquaculturists produce a whooping 1.1 billion pounds of marine plants and animals every year and by the end of 2025, fish production through aquaculture will be almost 50% of the complete aquatic food production!